レコードの更新

すべてのフィールドを保存する

Saveは 、SQLを実行するときにすべてのフィールドを更新します。

db.First(&user)

user.Name = "jinzhu 2"
user.Age = 100
db.Save(&user)
// UPDATE users SET name='jinzhu 2', age=100, birthday='2016-01-01', updated_at = '2013-11-17 21:34:10' WHERE id=111;

単一のカラムを更新する

When updating a single column with Update, it needs to have any conditions or it will raise error ErrMissingWhereClause, checkout Block Global Updates for details. When using the Model method and its value has a primary value, the primary key will be used to build the condition, for example:

// Update with conditions
db.Model(&User{}).Where("active = ?", true).Update("name", "hello")
// UPDATE users SET name='hello', updated_at='2013-11-17 21:34:10' WHERE active=true;

// User's ID is `111`:
db.Model(&user).Update("name", "hello")
// UPDATE users SET name='hello', updated_at='2013-11-17 21:34:10' WHERE id=111;

// Update with conditions and model value
db.Model(&user).Where("active = ?", true).Update("name", "hello")
// UPDATE users SET name='hello', updated_at='2013-11-17 21:34:10' WHERE id=111 AND active=true;

複数のカラムを更新する

Updates supports updating with struct or map[string]interface{}, when updating with struct it will only update non-zero fields by default

// Update attributes with `struct`, will only update non-zero fields
db.Model(&user).Updates(User{Name: "hello", Age: 18, Active: false})
// UPDATE users SET name='hello', age=18, updated_at = '2013-11-17 21:34:10' WHERE id = 111;

// Update attributes with `map`
db.Model(&user).Updates(map[string]interface{}{"name": "hello", "age": 18, "active": false})
// UPDATE users SET name='hello', age=18, active=false, updated_at='2013-11-17 21:34:10' WHERE id=111;

NOTE When updating with struct, GORM will only update non-zero fields. You might want to use map to update attributes or use Select to specify fields to update

選択したフィールドを更新する

選択したフィールドのみ更新する場合、または更新するフィールドを除外する場合は、 Select, Omit を使用できます

// Select with Map
// User's ID is `111`:
db.Model(&user).Select("name").Updates(map[string]interface{}{"name": "hello", "age": 18, "active": false})
// UPDATE users SET name='hello' WHERE id=111;

db.Model(&user).Omit("name").Updates(map[string]interface{}{"name": "hello", "age": 18, "active": false})
// UPDATE users SET age=18, active=false, updated_at='2013-11-17 21:34:10' WHERE id=111;

// Select with Struct (select zero value fields)
db.Model(&user).Select("Name", "Age").Updates(User{Name: "new_name", Age: 0})
// UPDATE users SET name='new_name', age=0 WHERE id=111;

// Select all fields (select all fields include zero value fields)
db.Model(&user).Select("*").Update(User{Name: "jinzhu", Role: "admin", Age: 0})

// Select all fields but omit Role (select all fields include zero value fields)
db.Model(&user).Select("*").Omit("Role").Update(User{Name: "jinzhu", Role: "admin", Age: 0})

更新時のHook

GORM allows the hooks BeforeSave, BeforeUpdate, AfterSave, AfterUpdate. Those methods will be called when updating a record, refer Hooks for details

func (u *User) BeforeUpdate(tx *gorm.DB) (err error) {
if u.Role == "admin" {
return errors.New("admin user not allowed to update")
}
return
}

一括更新

If we haven’t specified a record having a primary key value with Model, GORM will perform a batch update

// Update with struct
db.Model(User{}).Where("role = ?", "admin").Updates(User{Name: "hello", Age: 18})
// UPDATE users SET name='hello', age=18 WHERE role = 'admin';

// Update with map
db.Table("users").Where("id IN ?", []int{10, 11}).Updates(map[string]interface{}{"name": "hello", "age": 18})
// UPDATE users SET name='hello', age=18 WHERE id IN (10, 11);

Global Updatesを防ぐ

条件なしで一括更新を実行しようとした場合、デフォルトの設定ではGORMは更新処理を実行せず、 ErrMissingWhereClause エラーを返します。

条件を指定する、SQLをそのまま実行する、あるいは AllowGlobalUpdate モードを有効にする必要があります。例:

db.Model(&User{}).Update("name", "jinzhu").Error // gorm.ErrMissingWhereClause

db.Model(&User{}).Where("1 = 1").Update("name", "jinzhu")
// UPDATE users SET `name` = "jinzhu" WHERE 1=1

db.Exec("UPDATE users SET name = ?", "jinzhu")
// UPDATE users SET name = "jinzhu"

db.Session(&gorm.Session{AllowGlobalUpdate: true}).Model(&User{}).Update("name", "jinzhu")
// UPDATE users SET `name` = "jinzhu"

更新されたレコード数をカウントする

更新されたレコードの行数を取得することができます。

// Get updated records count with `RowsAffected`
result := db.Model(User{}).Where("role = ?", "admin").Updates(User{Name: "hello", Age: 18})
// UPDATE users SET name='hello', age=18 WHERE role = 'admin';

result.RowsAffected // returns updated records count
result.Error // returns updating error

高度な機能

SQL式で更新する

GORM allows updating a column with a SQL expression, e.g:

// product's ID is `3`
db.Model(&product).Update("price", gorm.Expr("price * ? + ?", 2, 100))
// UPDATE "products" SET "price" = price * 2 + 100, "updated_at" = '2013-11-17 21:34:10' WHERE "id" = 3;

db.Model(&product).Updates(map[string]interface{}{"price": gorm.Expr("price * ? + ?", 2, 100)})
// UPDATE "products" SET "price" = price * 2 + 100, "updated_at" = '2013-11-17 21:34:10' WHERE "id" = 3;

db.Model(&product).UpdateColumn("quantity", gorm.Expr("quantity - ?", 1))
// UPDATE "products" SET "quantity" = quantity - 1 WHERE "id" = 3;

db.Model(&product).Where("quantity > 1").UpdateColumn("quantity", gorm.Expr("quantity - ?", 1))
// UPDATE "products" SET "quantity" = quantity - 1 WHERE "id" = 3 AND quantity > 1;

And GORM also allows updating with SQL Expression/Context Valuer with Customized Data Types, e.g:

// Create from customized data type
type Location struct {
X, Y int
}

func (loc Location) GormValue(ctx context.Context, db *gorm.DB) clause.Expr {
return clause.Expr{
SQL: "ST_PointFromText(?)",
Vars: []interface{}{fmt.Sprintf("POINT(%d %d)", loc.X, loc.Y)},
}
}

db.Model(&User{ID: 1}).Updates(User{
Name: "jinzhu",
Location: Location{X: 100, Y: 100},
})
// UPDATE `user_with_points` SET `name`="jinzhu",`location`=ST_PointFromText("POINT(100 100)") WHERE `id` = 1

サブクエリでの更新

サブクエリを使用してテーブルを更新することができます。

db.Model(&user).Update("company_name", db.Model(&Company{}).Select("name").Where("companies.id = users.company_id"))
// UPDATE "users" SET "company_name" = (SELECT name FROM companies WHERE companies.id = users.company_id);

db.Table("users as u").Where("name = ?", "jinzhu").Update("company_name", db.Table("companies as c").Select("name").Where("c.id = u.company_id"))

db.Table("users as u").Where("name = ?", "jinzhu").Updates(map[string]interface{}{"company_name": db.Table("companies as c").Select("name").Where("c.id = u.company_id")})

Hooksやタイムトラッキングなしでの更新

Hooks メソッドの実行を回避したい場合や、更新時間をトラッキングしたくない場合、 UpdateUpdatesと似た、UpdateColumnUpdateColumns を使用することができます。

// Update single column
db.Model(&user).UpdateColumn("name", "hello")
// UPDATE users SET name='hello' WHERE id = 111;

// Update multiple columns
db.Model(&user).UpdateColumns(User{Name: "hello", Age: 18})
// UPDATE users SET name='hello', age=18 WHERE id = 111;

// Update selected columns
db.Model(&user).Select("name", "age").UpdateColumns(User{Name: "hello", Age: 0})
// UPDATE users SET name='hello', age=0 WHERE id = 111;

変更されたレコードのデータを返却する

Returning changed data only works for databases which support Returning, for example:

// すべてのカラムを返却する
var users []User
DB.Model(&users).Clauses(clause.Returning{}).Where("role = ?", "admin").Update("salary", gorm.Expr("salary * ?", 2))
// UPDATE `users` SET `salary`=salary * 2,`updated_at`="2021-10-28 17:37:23.19" WHERE role = "admin" RETURNING *
// users => []User{{ID: 1, Name: "jinzhu", Role: "admin", Salary: 100}, {ID: 2, Name: "jinzhu.2", Role: "admin", Salary: 1000}}

// 指定のカラムのみ返却する
DB.Model(&users).Clauses(clause.Returning{Columns: []clause.Column{{Name: "name"}, {Name: "salary"}}}).Where("role = ?", "admin").Update("salary", gorm.Expr("salary * ?", 2))
// UPDATE `users` SET `salary`=salary * 2,`updated_at`="2021-10-28 17:37:23.19" WHERE role = "admin" RETURNING `name`, `salary`
// users => []User{{ID: 0, Name: "jinzhu", Role: "", Salary: 100}, {ID: 0, Name: "jinzhu.2", Role: "", Salary: 1000}}

フィールドが変更されたかチェックする

GORM provides the Changed method which could be used in Before Update Hooks, it will return whether the field has changed or not.

The Changed method only works with methods Update, Updates, and it only checks if the updating value from Update / Updates equals the model value. It will return true if it is changed and not omitted

func (u *User) BeforeUpdate(tx *gorm.DB) (err error) {
// if Role changed
if tx.Statement.Changed("Role") {
return errors.New("role not allowed to change")
}

if tx.Statement.Changed("Name", "Admin") { // if Name or Role changed
tx.Statement.SetColumn("Age", 18)
}

// if any fields changed
if tx.Statement.Changed() {
tx.Statement.SetColumn("RefreshedAt", time.Now())
}
return nil
}

db.Model(&User{ID: 1, Name: "jinzhu"}).Updates(map[string]interface{"name": "jinzhu2"})
// Changed("Name") => true
db.Model(&User{ID: 1, Name: "jinzhu"}).Updates(map[string]interface{"name": "jinzhu"})
// Changed("Name") => false, `Name` not changed
db.Model(&User{ID: 1, Name: "jinzhu"}).Select("Admin").Updates(map[string]interface{
"name": "jinzhu2", "admin": false,
})
// Changed("Name") => false, `Name` not selected to update

db.Model(&User{ID: 1, Name: "jinzhu"}).Updates(User{Name: "jinzhu2"})
// Changed("Name") => true
db.Model(&User{ID: 1, Name: "jinzhu"}).Updates(User{Name: "jinzhu"})
// Changed("Name") => false, `Name` not changed
db.Model(&User{ID: 1, Name: "jinzhu"}).Select("Admin").Updates(User{Name: "jinzhu2"})
// Changed("Name") => false, `Name` not selected to update

更新値の変更

To change updating values in Before Hooks, you should use SetColumn unless it is a full update with Save, for example:

func (user *User) BeforeSave(tx *gorm.DB) (err error) {
if pw, err := bcrypt.GenerateFromPassword(user.Password, 0); err == nil {
tx.Statement.SetColumn("EncryptedPassword", pw)
}

if tx.Statement.Changed("Code") {
user.Age += 20
tx.Statement.SetColumn("Age", user.Age)
}
}

db.Model(&user).Update("Name", "jinzhu")

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