Session

GORM provides Session method, which is a New Session Method, it allows create a new session mode with configuration:

// Session Configuration
type Session struct {
DryRun bool
PrepareStmt bool
NewDB bool
SkipHooks bool
SkipDefaultTransaction bool
AllowGlobalUpdate bool
FullSaveAssociations bool
Context context.Context
Logger logger.Interface
NowFunc func() time.Time
}

DryRun

Generate SQL without executing, can be used to prepare or test generated SQL, for example:

// session mode
stmt := db.Session(&Session{DryRun: true}).First(&user, 1).Statement
stmt.SQL.String() //=> SELECT * FROM `users` WHERE `id` = $1 ORDER BY `id`
stmt.Vars //=> []interface{}{1}

// globally mode with DryRun
db, err := gorm.Open(sqlite.Open("gorm.db"), &gorm.Config{DryRun: true})

// different databases generate different SQL
stmt := db.Find(&user, 1).Statement
stmt.SQL.String() //=> SELECT * FROM `users` WHERE `id` = $1 // PostgreSQL
stmt.SQL.String() //=> SELECT * FROM `users` WHERE `id` = ? // MySQL
stmt.Vars //=> []interface{}{1}

To generate the finally SQL, you could use following code:

// NOTE the SQL is not always safe to execute, GORM only use it for logs, it might cause SQL injection
db.Dialector.Explain(stmt.SQL.String(), stmt.Vars...)
// SELECT * FROM `users` WHERE `id` = 1

PrepareStmt

PreparedStmt creates prepared statement when executing any SQL and caches them to speed up future calls, for example:

// globally mode, all DB operations will create prepared stmt and cache them
db, err := gorm.Open(sqlite.Open("gorm.db"), &gorm.Config{
PrepareStmt: true,
})

// session mode
tx := db.Session(&Session{PrepareStmt: true})
tx.First(&user, 1)
tx.Find(&users)
tx.Model(&user).Update("Age", 18)

// returns prepared statements manager
stmtManger, ok := tx.ConnPool.(*PreparedStmtDB)

// close prepared statements for *current session*
stmtManger.Close()

// prepared SQL for *current session*
stmtManger.PreparedSQL // => []string{}

// prepared statements for current database connection pool (all sessions)
stmtManger.Stmts // map[string]*sql.Stmt

for sql, stmt := range stmtManger.Stmts {
sql // prepared SQL
stmt // prepared statement
stmt.Close() // close the prepared statement
}

NewDB

Create a new DB without conditions with option NewDB, for example:

tx := db.Where("name = ?", "jinzhu").Session(&gorm.Session{NewDB: true})

tx.First(&user)
// SELECT * FROM users ORDER BY id LIMIT 1

tx.First(&user, "id = ?", 10)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE id = 10 ORDER BY id

// Without option `NewDB`
tx2 := db.Where("name = ?", "jinzhu").Session(&gorm.Session{})
tx2.First(&user)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = "jinzhu" ORDER BY id

Skip Hooks

If you want to skip Hooks methods, you can use the SkipHooks session mode, for example:

DB.Session(&gorm.Session{SkipHooks: true}).Create(&user)

DB.Session(&gorm.Session{SkipHooks: true}).Create(&users)

DB.Session(&gorm.Session{SkipHooks: true}).CreateInBatches(users, 100)

DB.Session(&gorm.Session{SkipHooks: true}).Find(&user)

DB.Session(&gorm.Session{SkipHooks: true}).Delete(&user)

DB.Session(&gorm.Session{SkipHooks: true}).Model(User{}).Where("age > ?", 18).Updates(&user)

AllowGlobalUpdate

GORM doesn’t allow global update/delete by default, will return ErrMissingWhereClause error, you can set this option to true to enable it, for example:

db.Session(&gorm.Session{
AllowGlobalUpdate: true,
}).Model(&User{}).Update("name", "jinzhu")
// UPDATE users SET `name` = "jinzhu"

FullSaveAssociations

GORM will auto-save associations and its reference using Upsert when creating/updating a record, if you want to update associations’s data, you should use the FullSaveAssociations mode, e.g:

db.Session(&gorm.Session{FullSaveAssociations: true}).Updates(&user)
// ...
// INSERT INTO "addresses" (address1) VALUES ("Billing Address - Address 1"), ("Shipping Address - Address 1") ON DUPLICATE KEY SET address1=VALUES(address1);
// INSERT INTO "users" (name,billing_address_id,shipping_address_id) VALUES ("jinzhu", 1, 2);
// INSERT INTO "emails" (user_id,email) VALUES (111, "jinzhu@example.com"), (111, "jinzhu-2@example.com") ON DUPLICATE KEY SET email=VALUES(email);
// ...

Context

With the Context option, you can set the Context for following SQL operations, for example:

timeoutCtx, _ := context.WithTimeout(context.Background(), time.Second)
tx := db.Session(&Session{Context: timeoutCtx})

tx.First(&user) // query with context timeoutCtx
tx.Model(&user).Update("role", "admin") // update with context timeoutCtx

GORM also provides shortcut method WithContext, here is the definition:

func (db *DB) WithContext(ctx context.Context) *DB {
return db.Session(&Session{Context: ctx})
}

Logger

Gorm allows customize built-in logger with the Logger option, for example:

newLogger := logger.New(log.New(os.Stdout, "\r\n", log.LstdFlags),
logger.Config{
SlowThreshold: time.Second,
LogLevel: logger.Silent,
Colorful: false,
})
db.Session(&Session{Logger: newLogger})

db.Session(&Session{Logger: logger.Default.LogMode(logger.Silent)})

Checkout Logger for more details

NowFunc

NowFunc allows change the function to get current time of GORM, for example:

db.Session(&Session{
NowFunc: func() time.Time {
return time.Now().Local()
},
})

Debug

Debug is a shortcut method to change session’s Logger to debug mode, here is the definition:

func (db *DB) Debug() (tx *DB) {
return db.Session(&Session{
Logger: db.Logger.LogMode(logger.Info),
})
}