Query

Retrieving a single object

GORM provides First, Take, Last methods to retrieve a single object from the database, it adds LIMIT 1 condition when querying the database, and it will return the error ErrRecordNotFound if no record is found.

// Get the first record ordered by primary key
db.First(&user)
// SELECT * FROM users ORDER BY id LIMIT 1;

// Get one record, no specified order
db.Take(&user)
// SELECT * FROM users LIMIT 1;

// Get last record, ordered by primary key desc
db.Last(&user)
// SELECT * FROM users ORDER BY id DESC LIMIT 1;

result := db.First(&user)
result.RowsAffected // returns count of records found
result.Error // returns error or nil

// check error ErrRecordNotFound
errors.Is(result.Error, gorm.ErrRecordNotFound)

If you want to avoid the ErrRecordNotFound error, you could use Find like db.Limit(1).Find(&user), the Find method accepts both struct and slice data

The First and Last methods will find the first and last record (respectively) as ordered by primary key. They only work when a pointer to the destination struct is passed to the methods as argument or when the model is specified using db.Model(). Additionally, if no primary key is defined for relevant model, then the model will be ordered by the first field. For example:

var user User
var users []User

// works because destination struct is passed in
db.First(&user)
// SELECT * FROM `users` ORDER BY `users`.`id` LIMIT 1

// works because model is specified using `db.Model()`
result := map[string]interface{}{}
db.Model(&User{}).First(&result)
// SELECT * FROM `users` ORDER BY `users`.`id` LIMIT 1

// doesn't work
result := map[string]interface{}{}
db.Table("users").First(&result)

// works with Take
result := map[string]interface{}{}
db.Table("users").Take(&result)

// no primary key defined, results will be ordered by first field (i.e., `Code`)
type Language struct {
Code string
Name string
}
db.First(&Language{})
// SELECT * FROM `languages` ORDER BY `languages`.`code` LIMIT 1

Retrieving objects with primary key

Objects can be retrieved using primary key by using Inline Conditions if the primary key is a number. When working with strings, extra care needs to be taken to avoid SQL Injection; check out Security section for details.

db.First(&user, 10)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE id = 10;

db.First(&user, "10")
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE id = 10;

db.Find(&users, []int{1,2,3})
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE id IN (1,2,3);

If the primary key is a string (for example, like a uuid), the query will be written as follows:

db.First(&user, "id = ?", "1b74413f-f3b8-409f-ac47-e8c062e3472a")
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE id = "1b74413f-f3b8-409f-ac47-e8c062e3472a";

Retrieving all objects

// Get all records
result := db.Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users;

result.RowsAffected // returns found records count, equals `len(users)`
result.Error // returns error

Conditions

String Conditions

// Get first matched record
db.Where("name = ?", "jinzhu").First(&user)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = 'jinzhu' ORDER BY id LIMIT 1;

// Get all matched records
db.Where("name <> ?", "jinzhu").Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name <> 'jinzhu';

// IN
db.Where("name IN ?", []string{"jinzhu", "jinzhu 2"}).Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name IN ('jinzhu','jinzhu 2');

// LIKE
db.Where("name LIKE ?", "%jin%").Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name LIKE '%jin%';

// AND
db.Where("name = ? AND age >= ?", "jinzhu", "22").Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = 'jinzhu' AND age >= 22;

// Time
db.Where("updated_at > ?", lastWeek).Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE updated_at > '2000-01-01 00:00:00';

// BETWEEN
db.Where("created_at BETWEEN ? AND ?", lastWeek, today).Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE created_at BETWEEN '2000-01-01 00:00:00' AND '2000-01-08 00:00:00';

Struct & Map Conditions

// Struct
db.Where(&User{Name: "jinzhu", Age: 20}).First(&user)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = "jinzhu" AND age = 20 ORDER BY id LIMIT 1;

// Map
db.Where(map[string]interface{}{"name": "jinzhu", "age": 20}).Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = "jinzhu" AND age = 20;

// Slice of primary keys
db.Where([]int64{20, 21, 22}).Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE id IN (20, 21, 22);

NOTE When querying with struct, GORM will only query with non-zero fields, that means if your field’s value is 0, '', false or other zero values, it won’t be used to build query conditions, for example:

db.Where(&User{Name: "jinzhu", Age: 0}).Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = "jinzhu";

To include zero values in the query conditions, you can use a map, which will include all key-values as query conditions, for example:

db.Where(map[string]interface{}{"Name": "jinzhu", "Age": 0}).Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = "jinzhu" AND age = 0;

For more details, see Specify Struct search fields.

Specify Struct search fields

When searching with struct, you can specify which particular values from the struct to use in the query conditions by passing in the relevant field name or the dbname to Where(), for example:

db.Where(&User{Name: "jinzhu"}, "name", "Age").Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = "jinzhu" AND age = 0;

db.Where(&User{Name: "jinzhu"}, "Age").Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE age = 0;

Inline Condition

Query conditions can be inlined into methods like First and Find in a similar way to Where.

// Get by primary key if it were a non-integer type
db.First(&user, "id = ?", "string_primary_key")
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE id = 'string_primary_key';

// Plain SQL
db.Find(&user, "name = ?", "jinzhu")
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = "jinzhu";

db.Find(&users, "name <> ? AND age > ?", "jinzhu", 20)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name <> "jinzhu" AND age > 20;

// Struct
db.Find(&users, User{Age: 20})
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE age = 20;

// Map
db.Find(&users, map[string]interface{}{"age": 20})
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE age = 20;

Not Conditions

Build NOT conditions, works similar to Where

db.Not("name = ?", "jinzhu").First(&user)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE NOT name = "jinzhu" ORDER BY id LIMIT 1;

// Not In
db.Not(map[string]interface{}{"name": []string{"jinzhu", "jinzhu 2"}}).Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name NOT IN ("jinzhu", "jinzhu 2");

// Struct
db.Not(User{Name: "jinzhu", Age: 18}).First(&user)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name <> "jinzhu" AND age <> 18 ORDER BY id LIMIT 1;

// Not In slice of primary keys
db.Not([]int64{1,2,3}).First(&user)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE id NOT IN (1,2,3) ORDER BY id LIMIT 1;

Or Conditions

db.Where("role = ?", "admin").Or("role = ?", "super_admin").Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE role = 'admin' OR role = 'super_admin';

// Struct
db.Where("name = 'jinzhu'").Or(User{Name: "jinzhu 2", Age: 18}).Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = 'jinzhu' OR (name = 'jinzhu 2' AND age = 18);

// Map
db.Where("name = 'jinzhu'").Or(map[string]interface{}{"name": "jinzhu 2", "age": 18}).Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = 'jinzhu' OR (name = 'jinzhu 2' AND age = 18);

For more complicated SQL queries. please also refer to Group Conditions in Advanced Query.

Selecting Specific Fields

Select allows you to specify the fields that you want to retrieve from database. Otherwise, GORM will select all fields by default.

db.Select("name", "age").Find(&users)
// SELECT name, age FROM users;

db.Select([]string{"name", "age"}).Find(&users)
// SELECT name, age FROM users;

db.Table("users").Select("COALESCE(age,?)", 42).Rows()
// SELECT COALESCE(age,'42') FROM users;

Also check out Smart Select Fields

Order

Specify order when retrieving records from the database

db.Order("age desc, name").Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users ORDER BY age desc, name;

// Multiple orders
db.Order("age desc").Order("name").Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users ORDER BY age desc, name;

db.Clauses(clause.OrderBy{
Expression: clause.Expr{SQL: "FIELD(id,?)", Vars: []interface{}{[]int{1, 2, 3}}, WithoutParentheses: true},
}).Find(&User{})
// SELECT * FROM users ORDER BY FIELD(id,1,2,3)

Limit & Offset

Limit specify the max number of records to retrieve
Offset specify the number of records to skip before starting to return the records

db.Limit(3).Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users LIMIT 3;

// Cancel limit condition with -1
db.Limit(10).Find(&users1).Limit(-1).Find(&users2)
// SELECT * FROM users LIMIT 10; (users1)
// SELECT * FROM users; (users2)

db.Offset(3).Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users OFFSET 3;

db.Limit(10).Offset(5).Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users OFFSET 5 LIMIT 10;

// Cancel offset condition with -1
db.Offset(10).Find(&users1).Offset(-1).Find(&users2)
// SELECT * FROM users OFFSET 10; (users1)
// SELECT * FROM users; (users2)

Refer to Pagination for details on how to make a paginator

Group By & Having

type result struct {
Date time.Time
Total int
}

db.Model(&User{}).Select("name, sum(age) as total").Where("name LIKE ?", "group%").Group("name").First(&result)
// SELECT name, sum(age) as total FROM `users` WHERE name LIKE "group%" GROUP BY `name` LIMIT 1


db.Model(&User{}).Select("name, sum(age) as total").Group("name").Having("name = ?", "group").Find(&result)
// SELECT name, sum(age) as total FROM `users` GROUP BY `name` HAVING name = "group"

rows, err := db.Table("orders").Select("date(created_at) as date, sum(amount) as total").Group("date(created_at)").Rows()
for rows.Next() {
...
}

rows, err := db.Table("orders").Select("date(created_at) as date, sum(amount) as total").Group("date(created_at)").Having("sum(amount) > ?", 100).Rows()
for rows.Next() {
...
}

type Result struct {
Date time.Time
Total int64
}
db.Table("orders").Select("date(created_at) as date, sum(amount) as total").Group("date(created_at)").Having("sum(amount) > ?", 100).Scan(&results)

Distinct

Selecting distinct values from the model

db.Distinct("name", "age").Order("name, age desc").Find(&results)

Distinct works with Pluck and Count too

Joins

Specify Joins conditions

type result struct {
Name string
Email string
}

db.Model(&User{}).Select("users.name, emails.email").Joins("left join emails on emails.user_id = users.id").Scan(&result{})
// SELECT users.name, emails.email FROM `users` left join emails on emails.user_id = users.id

rows, err := db.Table("users").Select("users.name, emails.email").Joins("left join emails on emails.user_id = users.id").Rows()
for rows.Next() {
...
}

db.Table("users").Select("users.name, emails.email").Joins("left join emails on emails.user_id = users.id").Scan(&results)

// multiple joins with parameter
db.Joins("JOIN emails ON emails.user_id = users.id AND emails.email = ?", "jinzhu@example.org").Joins("JOIN credit_cards ON credit_cards.user_id = users.id").Where("credit_cards.number = ?", "411111111111").Find(&user)

Joins Preloading

You can use Joins eager loading associations with a single SQL, for example:

db.Joins("Company").Find(&users)
// SELECT `users`.`id`,`users`.`name`,`users`.`age`,`Company`.`id` AS `Company__id`,`Company`.`name` AS `Company__name` FROM `users` LEFT JOIN `companies` AS `Company` ON `users`.`company_id` = `Company`.`id`;

Join with conditions

db.Joins("Company", DB.Where(&Company{Alive: true})).Find(&users)
// SELECT `users`.`id`,`users`.`name`,`users`.`age`,`Company`.`id` AS `Company__id`,`Company`.`name` AS `Company__name` FROM `users` LEFT JOIN `companies` AS `Company` ON `users`.`company_id` = `Company`.`id` AND `Company`.`alive` = true;

For more details, please refer to Preloading (Eager Loading).

Scan

Scanning results into a struct works similarly to the way we use Find

type Result struct {
Name string
Age int
}

var result Result
db.Table("users").Select("name", "age").Where("name = ?", "Antonio").Scan(&result)

// Raw SQL
db.Raw("SELECT name, age FROM users WHERE name = ?", "Antonio").Scan(&result)

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