Has Many

Has Many

A has many association sets up a one-to-many connection with another model, unlike has one, the owner could have zero or many instances of models.

For example, if your application includes users and credit card, and each user can have many credit cards.

// User has many CreditCards, UserID is the foreign key
type User struct {
gorm.Model
CreditCards []CreditCard
}

type CreditCard struct {
gorm.Model
Number string
UserID uint
}

Override Foreign Key

To define a has many relationship, a foreign key must exist. The default foreign key’s name is the owner’s type name plus the name of its primary key field

For example, to define a model that belongs to User, the foreign key should be UserID.

To use another field as foreign key, you can customize it with a foreignKey tag, e.g:

type User struct {
gorm.Model
CreditCards []CreditCard `gorm:"foreignKey:UserRefer"`
}

type CreditCard struct {
gorm.Model
Number string
UserRefer uint
}

Override References

GORM usually uses the owner’s primary key as the foreign key’s value, for the above example, it is the User‘s ID,

When you assign credit cards to a user, GORM will save the user’s ID into credit cards’ UserID field.

You are able to change it with tag references, e.g:

type User struct {
gorm.Model
MemberNumber string
CreditCards []CreditCard `gorm:"foreignKey:UserNumber;references:MemberNumber"`
}

type CreditCard struct {
gorm.Model
Number string
UserNumber string
}

Polymorphism Association

GORM supports polymorphism association for has one and has many, it will save owned entity’s table name into polymorphic type’s field, primary key value into the polymorphic field

type Dog struct {
ID int
Name string
Toys []Toy `gorm:"polymorphic:Owner;"`
}

type Toy struct {
ID int
Name string
OwnerID int
OwnerType string
}

db.Create(&Dog{Name: "dog1", Toy: []Toy{{Name: "toy1"}, {Name: "toy2"}}})
// INSERT INTO `dogs` (`name`) VALUES ("dog1")
// INSERT INTO `toys` (`name`,`owner_id`,`owner_type`) VALUES ("toy1","1","dogs"), ("toy2","1","dogs")

You can change the polymorphic type value with tag polymorphicValue, for example:

type Dog struct {
ID int
Name string
Toys []Toy `gorm:"polymorphic:Owner;polymorphicValue:master"`
}

type Toy struct {
ID int
Name string
OwnerID int
OwnerType string
}

db.Create(&Dog{Name: "dog1", Toy: []Toy{{Name: "toy1"}, {Name: "toy2"}}})
// INSERT INTO `dogs` (`name`) VALUES ("dog1")
// INSERT INTO `toys` (`name`,`owner_id`,`owner_type`) VALUES ("toy1","1","master"), ("toy2","1","master")

CRUD with Has Many

Please checkout Association Mode for working with has many relations

Eager Loading

GORM allows eager loading has many associations with Preload, refer Preloading (Eager loading) for details

Self-Referential Has Many

type User struct {
gorm.Model
Name string
ManagerID *uint
Team []User `gorm:"foreignkey:ManagerID"`
}

FOREIGN KEY Constraints

You can setup OnUpdate, OnDelete constraints with tag constraint, it will be created when migrating with GORM, for example:

type User struct {
gorm.Model
CreditCards []CreditCard `gorm:"constraint:OnUpdate:CASCADE,OnDelete:SET NULL;"`
}

type CreditCard struct {
gorm.Model
Number string
UserID uint
}

You are also allowed to delete selected has many associations with Select when deleting, checkout Delete with Select for details