Query

Query

// Get first record, order by primary key
db.First(&user)
//// SELECT * FROM users ORDER BY id LIMIT 1;

// Get one record, no specfied order
db.Take(&user)
//// SELECT * FROM users LIMIT 1;

// Get last record, order by primary key
db.Last(&user)
//// SELECT * FROM users ORDER BY id DESC LIMIT 1;

// Get all records
db.Find(&users)
//// SELECT * FROM users;

// Get record with primary key (only works for integer primary key)
db.First(&user, 10)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE id = 10;

Where

Plain SQL

// Get first matched record
db.Where("name = ?", "jinzhu").First(&user)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = 'jinzhu' limit 1;

// Get all matched records
db.Where("name = ?", "jinzhu").Find(&users)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = 'jinzhu';

// <>
db.Where("name <> ?", "jinzhu").Find(&users)

// IN
db.Where("name in (?)", []string{"jinzhu", "jinzhu 2"}).Find(&users)

// LIKE
db.Where("name LIKE ?", "%jin%").Find(&users)

// AND
db.Where("name = ? AND age >= ?", "jinzhu", "22").Find(&users)

// Time
db.Where("updated_at > ?", lastWeek).Find(&users)

// BETWEEN
db.Where("created_at BETWEEN ? AND ?", lastWeek, today).Find(&users)

Struct & Map

// Struct
db.Where(&User{Name: "jinzhu", Age: 20}).First(&user)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = "jinzhu" AND age = 20 LIMIT 1;

// Map
db.Where(map[string]interface{}{"name": "jinzhu", "age": 20}).Find(&users)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = "jinzhu" AND age = 20;

// Slice of primary keys
db.Where([]int64{20, 21, 22}).Find(&users)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE id IN (20, 21, 22);

NOTE When query with struct, GORM will only query with those fields has non-zero value, that means if your field’s value is 0, '', false or other zero values, it won’t be used to build query conditions, for example:

db.Where(&User{Name: "jinzhu", Age: 0}).Find(&users)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = "jinzhu";

You could consider to use pointer type or scanner/valuer to avoid this.

// Use pointer value
type User struct {
gorm.Model
Name string
Age *int
}

// Use scanner/valuer
type User struct {
gorm.Model
Name string
Age sql.NullInt64
}

Not

Works similar like Where

db.Not("name", "jinzhu").First(&user)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name <> "jinzhu" LIMIT 1;

// Not In
db.Not("name", []string{"jinzhu", "jinzhu 2"}).Find(&users)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name NOT IN ("jinzhu", "jinzhu 2");

// Not In slice of primary keys
db.Not([]int64{1,2,3}).First(&user)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE id NOT IN (1,2,3);

db.Not([]int64{}).First(&user)
//// SELECT * FROM users;

// Plain SQL
db.Not("name = ?", "jinzhu").First(&user)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE NOT(name = "jinzhu");

// Struct
db.Not(User{Name: "jinzhu"}).First(&user)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name <> "jinzhu";

Or

db.Where("role = ?", "admin").Or("role = ?", "super_admin").Find(&users)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE role = 'admin' OR role = 'super_admin';

// Struct
db.Where("name = 'jinzhu'").Or(User{Name: "jinzhu 2"}).Find(&users)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = 'jinzhu' OR name = 'jinzhu 2';

// Map
db.Where("name = 'jinzhu'").Or(map[string]interface{}{"name": "jinzhu 2"}).Find(&users)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = 'jinzhu' OR name = 'jinzhu 2';

Inline Condition

Works similar like Where.

When using with Multiple Immediate Methods, won’t pass those conditions to later immediate methods.

// Get by primary key (only works for integer primary key)
db.First(&user, 23)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE id = 23 LIMIT 1;
// Get by primary key if it were a non-integer type
db.First(&user, "id = ?", "string_primary_key")
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE id = 'string_primary_key' LIMIT 1;

// Plain SQL
db.Find(&user, "name = ?", "jinzhu")
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = "jinzhu";

db.Find(&users, "name <> ? AND age > ?", "jinzhu", 20)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name <> "jinzhu" AND age > 20;

// Struct
db.Find(&users, User{Age: 20})
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE age = 20;

// Map
db.Find(&users, map[string]interface{}{"age": 20})
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE age = 20;

Extra Querying option

// Add extra SQL option for selecting SQL
db.Set("gorm:query_option", "FOR UPDATE").First(&user, 10)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE id = 10 FOR UPDATE;

FirstOrInit

Get first matched record, or initalize a new one with given conditions (only works with struct, map conditions)

// Unfound
db.FirstOrInit(&user, User{Name: "non_existing"})
//// user -> User{Name: "non_existing"}

// Found
db.Where(User{Name: "Jinzhu"}).FirstOrInit(&user)
//// user -> User{Id: 111, Name: "Jinzhu", Age: 20}
db.FirstOrInit(&user, map[string]interface{}{"name": "jinzhu"})
//// user -> User{Id: 111, Name: "Jinzhu", Age: 20}

Attrs

Initalize struct with argument if record not found

// Unfound
db.Where(User{Name: "non_existing"}).Attrs(User{Age: 20}).FirstOrInit(&user)
//// SELECT * FROM USERS WHERE name = 'non_existing';
//// user -> User{Name: "non_existing", Age: 20}

db.Where(User{Name: "non_existing"}).Attrs("age", 20).FirstOrInit(&user)
//// SELECT * FROM USERS WHERE name = 'non_existing';
//// user -> User{Name: "non_existing", Age: 20}

// Found
db.Where(User{Name: "Jinzhu"}).Attrs(User{Age: 30}).FirstOrInit(&user)
//// SELECT * FROM USERS WHERE name = jinzhu';
//// user -> User{Id: 111, Name: "Jinzhu", Age: 20}

Assign

Assign argument to struct regardless it is found or not

// Unfound
db.Where(User{Name: "non_existing"}).Assign(User{Age: 20}).FirstOrInit(&user)
//// user -> User{Name: "non_existing", Age: 20}

// Found
db.Where(User{Name: "Jinzhu"}).Assign(User{Age: 30}).FirstOrInit(&user)
//// SELECT * FROM USERS WHERE name = jinzhu';
//// user -> User{Id: 111, Name: "Jinzhu", Age: 30}

FirstOrCreate

Get first matched record, or create a new one with given conditions (only works with struct, map conditions)

// Unfound
db.FirstOrCreate(&user, User{Name: "non_existing"})
//// INSERT INTO "users" (name) VALUES ("non_existing");
//// user -> User{Id: 112, Name: "non_existing"}

// Found
db.Where(User{Name: "Jinzhu"}).FirstOrCreate(&user)
//// user -> User{Id: 111, Name: "Jinzhu"}

Attrs

Assign struct with argument if record not found and create with those values

// Unfound
db.Where(User{Name: "non_existing"}).Attrs(User{Age: 20}).FirstOrCreate(&user)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = 'non_existing';
//// INSERT INTO "users" (name, age) VALUES ("non_existing", 20);
//// user -> User{Id: 112, Name: "non_existing", Age: 20}

// Found
db.Where(User{Name: "jinzhu"}).Attrs(User{Age: 30}).FirstOrCreate(&user)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = 'jinzhu';
//// user -> User{Id: 111, Name: "jinzhu", Age: 20}

Assign

Assign it to the record regardless it is found or not, and save back to database.

// Unfound
db.Where(User{Name: "non_existing"}).Assign(User{Age: 20}).FirstOrCreate(&user)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = 'non_existing';
//// INSERT INTO "users" (name, age) VALUES ("non_existing", 20);
//// user -> User{Id: 112, Name: "non_existing", Age: 20}

// Found
db.Where(User{Name: "jinzhu"}).Assign(User{Age: 30}).FirstOrCreate(&user)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = 'jinzhu';
//// UPDATE users SET age=30 WHERE id = 111;
//// user -> User{Id: 111, Name: "jinzhu", Age: 30}

Advanced Query

SubQuery

SubQuery with *gorm.expr

db.Where("amount > ?", DB.Table("orders").Select("AVG(amount)").Where("state = ?", "paid").QueryExpr()).Find(&orders)
// SELECT * FROM "orders" WHERE "orders"."deleted_at" IS NULL AND (amount > (SELECT AVG(amount) FROM "orders" WHERE (state = 'paid')));

Select

Specify fields that you want to retrieve from database, by default, will select all fields

db.Select("name, age").Find(&users)
//// SELECT name, age FROM users;

db.Select([]string{"name", "age"}).Find(&users)
//// SELECT name, age FROM users;

db.Table("users").Select("COALESCE(age,?)", 42).Rows()
//// SELECT COALESCE(age,'42') FROM users;

Order

Specify order when retrieve records from database, set reorder (the second argument) to true to overwrite defined conditions

db.Order("age desc, name").Find(&users)
//// SELECT * FROM users ORDER BY age desc, name;

// Multiple orders
db.Order("age desc").Order("name").Find(&users)
//// SELECT * FROM users ORDER BY age desc, name;

// ReOrder
db.Order("age desc").Find(&users1).Order("age", true).Find(&users2)
//// SELECT * FROM users ORDER BY age desc; (users1)
//// SELECT * FROM users ORDER BY age; (users2)

Limit

Specify the max number of records to retrieve

db.Limit(3).Find(&users)
//// SELECT * FROM users LIMIT 3;

// Cancel limit condition with -1
db.Limit(10).Find(&users1).Limit(-1).Find(&users2)
//// SELECT * FROM users LIMIT 10; (users1)
//// SELECT * FROM users; (users2)

Offset

Specify the number of records to skip before starting to return the records

db.Offset(3).Find(&users)
//// SELECT * FROM users OFFSET 3;

// Cancel offset condition with -1
db.Offset(10).Find(&users1).Offset(-1).Find(&users2)
//// SELECT * FROM users OFFSET 10; (users1)
//// SELECT * FROM users; (users2)

Count

Get how many records for a model

db.Where("name = ?", "jinzhu").Or("name = ?", "jinzhu 2").Find(&users).Count(&count)
//// SELECT * from USERS WHERE name = 'jinzhu' OR name = 'jinzhu 2'; (users)
//// SELECT count(*) FROM users WHERE name = 'jinzhu' OR name = 'jinzhu 2'; (count)

db.Model(&User{}).Where("name = ?", "jinzhu").Count(&count)
//// SELECT count(*) FROM users WHERE name = 'jinzhu'; (count)

db.Table("deleted_users").Count(&count)
//// SELECT count(*) FROM deleted_users;

NOTE When use Count in a query chain, it has to be the last one, as it will overwrite SELECT columns

Group & Having

rows, err := db.Table("orders").Select("date(created_at) as date, sum(amount) as total").Group("date(created_at)").Rows()
for rows.Next() {
...
}

rows, err := db.Table("orders").Select("date(created_at) as date, sum(amount) as total").Group("date(created_at)").Having("sum(amount) > ?", 100).Rows()
for rows.Next() {
...
}

type Result struct {
Date time.Time
Total int64
}
db.Table("orders").Select("date(created_at) as date, sum(amount) as total").Group("date(created_at)").Having("sum(amount) > ?", 100).Scan(&results)

Joins

Specify Joins conditions

rows, err := db.Table("users").Select("users.name, emails.email").Joins("left join emails on emails.user_id = users.id").Rows()
for rows.Next() {
...
}

db.Table("users").Select("users.name, emails.email").Joins("left join emails on emails.user_id = users.id").Scan(&results)

// multiple joins with parameter
db.Joins("JOIN emails ON emails.user_id = users.id AND emails.email = ?", "jinzhu@example.org").Joins("JOIN credit_cards ON credit_cards.user_id = users.id").Where("credit_cards.number = ?", "411111111111").Find(&user)

Pluck

Query single column from a model as a map, if you want to query multiple columns, you should use Scan instead

var ages []int64
db.Find(&users).Pluck("age", &ages)

var names []string
db.Model(&User{}).Pluck("name", &names)

db.Table("deleted_users").Pluck("name", &names)

// Requesting more than one column? Do it like this:
db.Select("name, age").Find(&users)

Scan

Scan results into another struct.

type Result struct {
Name string
Age int
}

var result Result
db.Table("users").Select("name, age").Where("name = ?", 3).Scan(&result)

// Raw SQL
db.Raw("SELECT name, age FROM users WHERE name = ?", 3).Scan(&result)