查询

查询

// 根据主键查询第一条记录
db.First(&user)
//// SELECT * FROM users ORDER BY id LIMIT 1;

// 随机获取一条记录
db.Take(&user)
//// SELECT * FROM users LIMIT 1;

// 根据主键查询最后一条记录
db.Last(&user)
//// SELECT * FROM users ORDER BY id DESC LIMIT 1;

// 查询所有的记录
db.Find(&users)
//// SELECT * FROM users;

// 查询指定的某条记录(仅当主键为整型时可用)
db.First(&user, 10)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE id = 10;

Where 条件

普通 SQL

// Get first matched record
db.Where("name = ?", "jinzhu").First(&user)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = 'jinzhu' limit 1;

// Get all matched records
db.Where("name = ?", "jinzhu").Find(&users)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = 'jinzhu';

// <>
db.Where("name <> ?", "jinzhu").Find(&users)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name <> 'jinzhu';

// IN
db.Where("name IN (?)", []string{"jinzhu", "jinzhu 2"}).Find(&users)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name in ('jinzhu','jinzhu 2');

// LIKE
db.Where("name LIKE ?", "%jin%").Find(&users)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name LIKE '%jin%';

// AND
db.Where("name = ? AND age >= ?", "jinzhu", "22").Find(&users)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = 'jinzhu' AND age >= 22;

// Time
db.Where("updated_at > ?", lastWeek).Find(&users)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE updated_at > '2000-01-01 00:00:00';

// BETWEEN
db.Where("created_at BETWEEN ? AND ?", lastWeek, today).Find(&users)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE created_at BETWEEN '2000-01-01 00:00:00' AND '2000-01-08 00:00:00';

Struct & Map

// Struct
db.Where(&User{Name: "jinzhu", Age: 20}).First(&user)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = "jinzhu" AND age = 20 LIMIT 1;

// Map
db.Where(map[string]interface{}{"name": "jinzhu", "age": 20}).Find(&users)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = "jinzhu" AND age = 20;

// 主键的切片
db.Where([]int64{20, 21, 22}).Find(&users)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE id IN (20, 21, 22);

提示 当通过结构体进行查询时,GORM将会只通过非零值字段查询,这意味着如果你的字段值为0''false 或者其他 零值时,将不会被用于构建查询条件,例如:

db.Where(&User{Name: "jinzhu", Age: 0}).Find(&users)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = "jinzhu";

你可以使用指针或实现 Scanner/Valuer 接口来避免这个问题.

// 使用指针
type User struct {
gorm.Model
Name string
Age *int
}

// 使用 Scanner/Valuer
type User struct {
gorm.Model
Name string
Age sql.NullInt64 // sql.NullInt64 实现了 Scanner/Valuer 接口
}

Not 条件

作用与 Where 类似

db.Not("name", "jinzhu").First(&user)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name <> "jinzhu" LIMIT 1;

// Not In
db.Not("name", []string{"jinzhu", "jinzhu 2"}).Find(&users)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name NOT IN ("jinzhu", "jinzhu 2");

// Not In slice of primary keys
db.Not([]int64{1,2,3}).First(&user)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE id NOT IN (1,2,3);

db.Not([]int64{}).First(&user)
//// SELECT * FROM users;

// Plain SQL
db.Not("name = ?", "jinzhu").First(&user)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE NOT(name = "jinzhu");

// Struct
db.Not(User{Name: "jinzhu"}).First(&user)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name <> "jinzhu";

Or 条件

db.Where("role = ?", "admin").Or("role = ?", "super_admin").Find(&users)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE role = 'admin' OR role = 'super_admin';

// Struct
db.Where("name = 'jinzhu'").Or(User{Name: "jinzhu 2"}).Find(&users)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = 'jinzhu' OR name = 'jinzhu 2';

// Map
db.Where("name = 'jinzhu'").Or(map[string]interface{}{"name": "jinzhu 2"}).Find(&users)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = 'jinzhu' OR name = 'jinzhu 2';

Inline Condition 内联条件

作用与 Where 类似

当内联条件与 多个立即执行方法 一起使用时, 内联条件不会传递给后面的立即执行方法。

// 根据主键获取记录 (只适用于整形主键)
db.First(&user, 23)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE id = 23 LIMIT 1;
// 根据主键获取记录, 如果它是一个非整形主键
db.First(&user, "id = ?", "string_primary_key")
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE id = 'string_primary_key' LIMIT 1;

// Plain SQL
db.Find(&user, "name = ?", "jinzhu")
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = "jinzhu";

db.Find(&users, "name <> ? AND age > ?", "jinzhu", 20)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name <> "jinzhu" AND age > 20;

// Struct
db.Find(&users, User{Age: 20})
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE age = 20;

// Map
db.Find(&users, map[string]interface{}{"age": 20})
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE age = 20;

Extra Querying option 其它查询选项

// 为查询 SQL 添加额外的 SQL 操作
db.Set("gorm:query_option", "FOR UPDATE").First(&user, 10)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE id = 10 FOR UPDATE;

FirstOrInit

获取匹配的第一条记录,否则根据给定的条件初始化一个新的对象 (仅支持 struct 和 map 条件)

// 未找到
db.FirstOrInit(&user, User{Name: "non_existing"})
//// user -> User{Name: "non_existing"}

// 找到
db.Where(User{Name: "Jinzhu"}).FirstOrInit(&user)
//// user -> User{Id: 111, Name: "Jinzhu", Age: 20}
db.FirstOrInit(&user, map[string]interface{}{"name": "jinzhu"})
//// user -> User{Id: 111, Name: "Jinzhu", Age: 20}

Attrs

如果记录未找到,将使用参数初始化 struct.

// 未找到
db.Where(User{Name: "non_existing"}).Attrs(User{Age: 20}).FirstOrInit(&user)
//// SELECT * FROM USERS WHERE name = 'non_existing';
//// user -> User{Name: "non_existing", Age: 20}

db.Where(User{Name: "non_existing"}).Attrs("age", 20).FirstOrInit(&user)
//// SELECT * FROM USERS WHERE name = 'non_existing';
//// user -> User{Name: "non_existing", Age: 20}

// 找到
db.Where(User{Name: "Jinzhu"}).Attrs(User{Age: 30}).FirstOrInit(&user)
//// SELECT * FROM USERS WHERE name = jinzhu';
//// user -> User{Id: 111, Name: "Jinzhu", Age: 20}

Assign

不管记录是否找到,都将参数赋值给 struct.

// 未找到
db.Where(User{Name: "non_existing"}).Assign(User{Age: 20}).FirstOrInit(&user)
//// user -> User{Name: "non_existing", Age: 20}

// 找到
db.Where(User{Name: "Jinzhu"}).Assign(User{Age: 30}).FirstOrInit(&user)
//// SELECT * FROM USERS WHERE name = jinzhu';
//// user -> User{Id: 111, Name: "Jinzhu", Age: 30}

FirstOrCreate

获取匹配的第一条记录, 否则根据给定的条件创建一个新的记录 (仅支持 struct 和 map 条件)

// 未找到
db.FirstOrCreate(&user, User{Name: "non_existing"})
//// INSERT INTO "users" (name) VALUES ("non_existing");
//// user -> User{Id: 112, Name: "non_existing"}

// 找到
db.Where(User{Name: "Jinzhu"}).FirstOrCreate(&user)
//// user -> User{Id: 111, Name: "Jinzhu"}

Attrs

如果记录未找到,将使用参数创建 struct 和记录.

// 未找到
db.Where(User{Name: "non_existing"}).Attrs(User{Age: 20}).FirstOrCreate(&user)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = 'non_existing';
//// INSERT INTO "users" (name, age) VALUES ("non_existing", 20);
//// user -> User{Id: 112, Name: "non_existing", Age: 20}

// 找到
db.Where(User{Name: "jinzhu"}).Attrs(User{Age: 30}).FirstOrCreate(&user)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = 'jinzhu';
//// user -> User{Id: 111, Name: "jinzhu", Age: 20}

Assign

不管记录是否找到,都将参数赋值给 struct 并保存至数据库.

// 未找到
db.Where(User{Name: "non_existing"}).Assign(User{Age: 20}).FirstOrCreate(&user)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = 'non_existing';
//// INSERT INTO "users" (name, age) VALUES ("non_existing", 20);
//// user -> User{Id: 112, Name: "non_existing", Age: 20}

// 找到
db.Where(User{Name: "jinzhu"}).Assign(User{Age: 30}).FirstOrCreate(&user)
//// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = 'jinzhu';
//// UPDATE users SET age=30 WHERE id = 111;
//// user -> User{Id: 111, Name: "jinzhu", Age: 30}

Advanced Query 高级查询

SubQuery 子查询

基于 *gorm.expr 的子查询

db.Where("amount > ?", DB.Table("orders").Select("AVG(amount)").Where("state = ?", "paid").QueryExpr()).Find(&orders)
// SELECT * FROM "orders" WHERE "orders"."deleted_at" IS NULL AND (amount > (SELECT AVG(amount) FROM "orders" WHERE (state = 'paid')));

选择字段

Select,指定你想从数据库中检索出的字段,默认会选择全部字段。

db.Select("name, age").Find(&users)
//// SELECT name, age FROM users;

db.Select([]string{"name", "age"}).Find(&users)
//// SELECT name, age FROM users;

db.Table("users").Select("COALESCE(age,?)", 42).Rows()
//// SELECT COALESCE(age,'42') FROM users;

排序

Order,指定从数据库中检索出记录的顺序。设置第二个参数 reorder 为 true ,可以覆盖前面定义的排序条件。

db.Order("age desc, name").Find(&users)
//// SELECT * FROM users ORDER BY age desc, name;

// 多字段排序
db.Order("age desc").Order("name").Find(&users)
//// SELECT * FROM users ORDER BY age desc, name;

// 覆盖排序
db.Order("age desc").Find(&users1).Order("age", true).Find(&users2)
//// SELECT * FROM users ORDER BY age desc; (users1)
//// SELECT * FROM users ORDER BY age; (users2)

数量

Limit,指定从数据库检索出的最大记录数。

db.Limit(3).Find(&users)
//// SELECT * FROM users LIMIT 3;

// -1 取消 Limit 条件
db.Limit(10).Find(&users1).Limit(-1).Find(&users2)
//// SELECT * FROM users LIMIT 10; (users1)
//// SELECT * FROM users; (users2)

偏移

Offset,指定开始返回记录前要跳过的记录数。

db.Offset(3).Find(&users)
//// SELECT * FROM users OFFSET 3;

// -1 取消 Offset 条件
db.Offset(10).Find(&users1).Offset(-1).Find(&users2)
//// SELECT * FROM users OFFSET 10; (users1)
//// SELECT * FROM users; (users2)

总数

Count,该 model 能获取的记录总数。

db.Where("name = ?", "jinzhu").Or("name = ?", "jinzhu 2").Find(&users).Count(&count)
//// SELECT * from USERS WHERE name = 'jinzhu' OR name = 'jinzhu 2'; (users)
//// SELECT count(*) FROM users WHERE name = 'jinzhu' OR name = 'jinzhu 2'; (count)

db.Model(&User{}).Where("name = ?", "jinzhu").Count(&count)
//// SELECT count(*) FROM users WHERE name = 'jinzhu'; (count)

db.Table("deleted_users").Count(&count)
//// SELECT count(*) FROM deleted_users;

db.Table("deleted_users").Select("count(distinct(name))").Count(&count)
//// SELECT count( distinct(name) ) FROM deleted_users; (count)

注意 Count 必须是链式查询的最后一个操作 ,因为它会覆盖前面的 SELECT,但如果里面使用了 count 时不会覆盖

Group & Having

rows, err := db.Table("orders").Select("date(created_at) as date, sum(amount) as total").Group("date(created_at)").Rows()
for rows.Next() {
...
}

rows, err := db.Table("orders").Select("date(created_at) as date, sum(amount) as total").Group("date(created_at)").Having("sum(amount) > ?", 100).Rows()
for rows.Next() {
...
}

type Result struct {
Date time.Time
Total int64
}
db.Table("orders").Select("date(created_at) as date, sum(amount) as total").Group("date(created_at)").Having("sum(amount) > ?", 100).Scan(&results)

连接

Joins,指定连接条件

rows, err := db.Table("users").Select("users.name, emails.email").Joins("left join emails on emails.user_id = users.id").Rows()
for rows.Next() {
...
}

db.Table("users").Select("users.name, emails.email").Joins("left join emails on emails.user_id = users.id").Scan(&results)

// 多连接及参数
db.Joins("JOIN emails ON emails.user_id = users.id AND emails.email = ?", "jinzhu@example.org").Joins("JOIN credit_cards ON credit_cards.user_id = users.id").Where("credit_cards.number = ?", "411111111111").Find(&user)

Pluck

Pluck,查询 model 中的一个列作为切片,如果您想要查询多个列,您应该使用 Scan

var ages []int64
db.Find(&users).Pluck("age", &ages)

var names []string
db.Model(&User{}).Pluck("name", &names)

db.Table("deleted_users").Pluck("name", &names)

// 想查询多个字段? 这样做:
db.Select("name, age").Find(&users)

扫描

Scan,扫描结果至一个 struct.

type Result struct {
Name string
Age int
}

var result Result
db.Table("users").Select("name, age").Where("name = ?", "Antonio").Scan(&result)

// 原生 SQL
db.Raw("SELECT name, age FROM users WHERE name = ?", "Antonio").Scan(&result)